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The Secret of the Golden Flower and Jungian ActiveImagination

Author:Heyong Shen       2014-04-11 Font:S M L


The Secret of the Golden Flower and Jungian ActiveImagination

Heyong Shen

Good morning. I want to thank Dr. John Beebe for his spiritedintroduction. As for his understanding, encouragement and friendship over theyears, I am truly grateful.

The report I have prepared for the Third International Forum ofAnalytical Psychology and Chinese Culture is: The Secret of the GoldenFlower and the Jungian Active Imagination.


First, I’d like to extend my appreciation for Dr. Murray Stein’s reporton "The Ethics of Individuation, the Individuation of Ethics", whichpresented many excellent and profound insights. In his report, he told thestory of the "rain-maker" which was one of Jung's favorites, and usedit to illustrate an important concept in Jungian analytical psychology:synchronicity, which I translate as (共时性) "gong shi xing"(coincidental nature); professor Yang Shaogang translates it as (缘分) "yuan fen"(fate/destiny), which makes me think of the concept of (缘起性空)"yuan qi xingkong",(creativevoid) in Buddhism. This concept obviously can have infinite and profoundmeanings.

After exploring the concept of synchronicity, Dr. Murray Stein delvesinto the central concept in Jungian psychology: “individuation”, which wastranslated into (个性化) "ge xing hua" (character development) by Prof.Yang Shaogang; it is also used as (个体化) “ge ti hua” (individualdevelopment) by many other scholars, especially by those from Taiwan. But Iusually translate it as (自性化) "zi xing hua" (Self development); so from themultiplicity of Chinese translations can be seen there is a need for furtherunderstanding of this term.

I first began translating individuation as zi xing hua after anenlightening discussion with Dr. Murray Stein when he visited China for thefirst time in 1994. This change in my understanding of the term also relates tomy understanding and knowledge about Jung’s concept of the "Self". Itranslated Jung’s "Self" into (自性) "zi xing", whichliterally can be understood as the "inborn psychic nature of  the self", so zi xing hua also means"transformation of the self’s inner psychic nature".

But I find it most appropriate to use a native Chinese term to expressboth synchronicity and individuation, which is (天人合一) "tian ren he yi" (beingone with Heaven). The concept of Being One with Heaven can include the rain-maker'slesson as well as the ideas in synchronicity and individuation.

For this change in my understanding, I am indebted again to Dr. MurrayStein, and in particular to his work Practice the Wholeness. This bookis never far from my desk. Dr. Murray Stein is my mentor and friend, and forhis supportive influence on my study and research of Jungian psychology I am eternallygrateful.

Jung once said, he would never give a seminar on active imaginationwithout telling the story of rain-maker. Therefore, I will also use the storyof the rain-maker and also the concepts of synchronicity and individuation toillustrate the connection I want to highlight in my report.

First, I’d like to introduce a bit about my own background and how I cameto study Jung.

The Book The Secret of the Golden Flower was a pivital signpostthat lead me to the road of studying Jungian analytical psychology. The yearwas 1993; I was living in the town of Edwardsville, in the state of Illinois inthe U.S. I had just started self-analysis at that time. Reading The Secretof the Golden Flower became a key for me to open the door to Jungianpsychology, and it has been accompanying me through my study and practice ofanalytical psychology since then.

In 1997, Dr. Murray Stein invited me to join David Rosen, author of thebook The Tao of Jung for a public dialogue on "Jung and China"at Chicago Jung Institute. One of the audience members asked a challengingquestion: "Are there any severe problems in the translation of RichardWilhelm of the Secret of the Golden Flower and Jung’s comments onit?" This question was based on a criticism of Richard Wilhelm’stranslation by Thomas Cleary in his new translation. At the time, I hadn’t readThomas Cleary’s translation, so I answered: "Wilhelm utilized his deepunderstanding of Chinese culture and mainly paraphrased the text. He translatedthe words into meaning… at least for me, I benefited a lot from reading thebook the translated Secret of the Golden Flower as collaborated on by Jung andRichard Wilhelm."

Later, Murray Stein encouraged me to further research the twotranslations and also to study the original text of the Secret of the GoldenFlower (Taiyi Jinhua Zongzhi) in Chinese. With this task in my mind,I went to the C.G. Jung Institute Zurich, in Kusnacht Switzerland. While there,I went to visit Dr. Rudolf Ritsema at Eranos Foundation, hoping to hear hisopinions about Richard Wilhelm’s translation and Jung’s comments.

After I arrived at Eranos, Ritsema immediately told me this story: Heknew the story of the rain-maker as recounted by Jung was originally fromRichard Wilhelm, but he could not find the provenance of it in any of Wilhelm’swork. Ritsema wanted to cite this story while writing about something else.Several volumes of Wilhelm’s work were lying on his desk, and he was readingWilhelm’s work the moment I arrived. Knowing that I had arrived, he wanted towelcome me. Before leaving the room, he casually put a letter into one of thebook he had been reading… And just on this page, where he put the letter in, hefound the provenance of the story of the rain-maker. Holding the book in hishand, Dr. Risema told me excitedly: Such is synchronicity: "A Chinesescholar came to Eranos, and helped me find the story of rain-maker in China byaccident."

I tell this anecdote here in order to commemorate Dr. Ritsema. He waspresident of the Eranos Foundation for 40 years and translated the I Chinginto 7 languages. He was born in 1918, and died on 8th, May, 2006.In his commemoration this was written:


There is a peace that passeth all understanding;

It abides in the heart of those who live in the eternal.

There is a power that maketh all things new;

It lives and moves in those who know the Self as One.


On that day, after having lunch with Ritsema, I went to rest in the roomshe had arranged for me. It was a large suite, which is typical in Eranos. As Iwent into my bedroom, I saw a picture directly on the wall:

Lu Dongbin (lived in later Tang Dynasty and the age of Wudai, around590AD). According to Richard Wilhelm, he is the author of The Secret of theGolden Flower.


This image helped me to realize what I was really looking for in Zurich.For me to study and explore the Secret of the Golden Flower, it’s a chance toutilize Jung’s active imagination. And facing the image of the author of thisfateful book, I suddenly knew I also could experience and communicate inimages.

I take active imagination as one of the most important methods andtechniques in Jungian psychology and analytical practice. It’s so importancebecause it is not just a method or technique; it is a basic attitude to contactor confront the unconscious, a road towards individuation; it is also a stateof mind in analytical psychology which I’m now pursuing.

Jung’s therapeutic method had many different names before he settled onthe term active imagination.

According to Jungian scholars such as Barbara Hannah and von Franz, Jungdescribed it systematically for the first time in detail in 1929 in his cooperatedwork with Richard Wilhelm on the book Secretof the Golden Flower. He began to refine the method around 1916 as he wasworking on his self analysis (Jung: Transcendental Function.1916/1958), but hiscompleted manuscript wasn't rediscovered by his students in Zurich’s JungInstitute until 1958. When he delivered the Tavistock Lectures in London in1935 he used the term "Active imagination" for the first time inpublic.

So, we can see that The Secret of the Golden Flower was ofimportance to Jung in deciding to use the term active imagination for thismethod.

Then, what is the secret of "Secret of the Golden Flower"?Even though its Chinese text is quite famous, and all the more so because ofJung’s commentary, it still has many secrets. These secrets involve developinga certain kind of “self-knowledge” that everyone can achieve and which includes everyexperience and incident that has ever happened to us, just like the process ofindividuation as Jung described.

    As far as I know, there exist fivedifferent versions of the Chinese original Secret of the Golden Flower.They are now stored respectively in the National Library (the title is TaoCang Ji Yao), the Beijing University Library, the China Renmin UniversityLibrary ( the title is Tao Cang Xu Bian) and the Freedom PublishingHouse in Taiwan, and the version Richard Wilhelm used for translation which isstored in the library of Washington University, and is identified as thebasically the same as that at Beijing University Library.

The five versions involve two main schools of Taoism, the school of JingMing (Tao Cang Ji Yao) and the school of Long Men (Tao Cang Xu Bian),but the books are mainly identical. The only difference lies in the firstchapter and the remaining 12 chapters are the same.

While Richard Wilhelm was translating the Secret of the Golden Flower basedon the version at Beijing University Library, he included the contents ofanother acient text, Hui Ming Jing into his translation and used severalillustrations from the Xingming Guizhi. Wilhelm just translated thefirst 8 chapters of Taiyi Jinhua Zongzhi, which has 13 chapters. Hewrote a long introduction, presented his understanding of the text.

The full Chinese title of Taiyi Jinhua Zongzhi was only partiallytranslated as the Secret of the Golden Flower. This only covers"Jinhua Zongzhi", while the phrase "taiyi", the first twoChinese characters of the title, was left out as hidden content, either byconscious design or unconsciously.

So, what is taiyi?

With full titles we can have proper understanding. In all Chineseclassics, the title always has particular meaning. We can illustrate theconnotation of "taiyi" in the following five aspects, through thestructure of the Chinese characters and from the text of Taiyi JinhuaZongzhi:

1. The two characters "taiyi (太乙)" are very simple, but are also very special.  In the character "太", we can see theimage of "大 (big)"; and it’s pronunciation is "tai", thesame as "泰",meaning the "greatest". When you want to describe something which isextremely big, you can use the word "tai", like "taiji (太极)". In the character "yi (乙)", we can see the image ofplants growing. It is found in the second of tiangan, one of the earliestelement to measure the passing of time in ancient China.

2. "taiyi" is the heaven’s matrix. "Tai" is the big,the greatest, and the heaven. "Yi (乙)" contains the image of the word "ji (几)", and is pronounced as"yi (一,one)". The image of"yi (乙)" is that of theseed sprouting out.  We can also use LuDongbin’s words (in Zhonglu ChuanTao Ji), that Taiyi is the "matrixof heaven and earth" and the primal creation.

3. "taiyi" is the symbol and metaphor of the Great Way. Thefirst chapter of Taiyi Jinhua Zongzhi, “The Heavelyn Heart” started with Master Lu Tzu (Dongbin Lu) : “That which exists through itselfis called Meaning (Tao).” and "The so-called taiyi, is the GreatWay." [1]"taiyi (太乙)" is equal to "taiyi(太一)", and "yi (一,the One)" is also theTao, the Great, the Origin, the Inborn. So "taiyi" could be the"Tao".

4. "taiyi" contains the meaning of primal qi (life force), or"yuan qi". It has an important therapeutic meaning. Taiyi JinhuaZongzhi says: "The Golden Flower is the Light. What colour has thelight? One uses the Golden Flower as an image. It is the true power of thetranscendent Great One." [2] TheTaoists who practice Jindan uses the qi as a kind of medicine. When the real qiaccumulates, it will result in tranquility and healing; when the real qi isweak, it will result in sickness.

5. "Taiyi" is the primal hole, the heart of the heaven, and the"Big Dipper" [3]. It alsocontains the archetypal image and symbol of the Dipper. Taiyi Jinhua Zongzhidescribes it this way: While observing the Big Dipper in the heaven, my heartis the same like the Dipper. " The heart is the Dipper, the qi is thestars. The secret of it lies in "the peace of the heart". When theheart reaches the highest level of peace, it generates movements; When theheart is peaceful, the spirit reaches a state of wholeness; when the spiritreaches a state of wholeness, the true nature appears."  It also says: "But the heart of heavenis a hole; it is not in the body, and it is not outside the body. You cannotopen it through exploring. You can only wait silently while you are alive.  The key lies in the two characters: cun (存, existing) and cheng (诚, sincerity)". [4]


This key to cultivation of the Taoist’s nei dan (inner energy) remaineduncirculated for thousands of years.  Itssecrets for longevity and discipline for living well can also be summed up inthe two characters: cun (存) andcheng (诚). The recommendedcultivation methods involved both ethics and wisdom.

"Cun cheng (living in truth)" is very important, and its poweris infinite. In the Taiyi Jinhua Zongzhi it is called the"wonderful function of cun cheng".

The I Ching says: "Guarding against depravity, he preserveshis sincerity." [5]

Confucius says: "In the Book of Poetry are three hundred pieces, butthe design of them all may be embraced in one sentence --- ‘Have no depravedthoughts.’” [6]This statement has the connotation of cultivating ethics is the summation ofall classical teachings.

"Zhong yong" (the middle path) is the main discipline ofConfucianism which can be also be distilled into one phrase: hold in mind theimage of "cheng".

Thus it can be said that the Chinese classics' instruction for selfcultivation are all methods for developing ethics and wisdom through"truth."

So what kind of secrets did Jung obtain from the Secret of the GoldenFlower, and what can we learn from Jung?

Jung says in his comments on the Secret of the Golden Flower:"The growing acquaintanceship with the spiritual East should mean to usonly a symbolical expression of the fact that we are entering into connectionwith the strange elements in ourselves." [7] Thesewords show Jung’s sensitivity and wisdom. Jung says: "To understandmetaphysically is impossible; it can only be done psychologically." [8] It wasthese enlightenment words from Jung along with the book The Secret of theGolden Flower that helped me to open the gate leading to Jungian analyticalpsychology. My research has initiated a new kind of perspective in me, a chanceto re-recognize Chinese culture from the perspective of analytical psychology.

I particularly like Jung’s words in the following paragraph and I’d liketo share with you:

Jung says: "It seems to me far more reasonable to accord the psychethe same validity as is given the empirical world, and to admit that the formerhas just as much 'reality' as the latter. As I see it, the psyche is a world inwhich the ego is contained. Perhaps there are also fishes who believe that theycontain the sea. It is our responsibility to do away with this pervasiveillusion if metaphysics is to be approached from the psychologicalstandpoint." [9]

For Jung, if one can understand Chinese culture, such as the teachings ofthe I Ching, one will know that, in the Chinese sense, the views set forth in theSecret of the Golden Flower are nothing extraordinary, but are quiteinescapable, psychological conclusions. As to Jung, The Secret of the Golden Flower is concerned with the “Way”, and itis the question of this same “Way” that comes up with his patients.

What does this mean for us as practical analysts? What shall we do withthis secret teaching?

Jung says of the Secret of the Golden Flower: "What did these peopledo in order to bring about the development that set them free? As far as I couldsee they did 'no thing' but everything gets done (wu wei). As Master Lu-tsuteaches in our text, the light circulates according to its own law if one doesnot give up one’s ordinary occupation. The art of letting things happen, actionthrough non-action, letting go of oneself as taught by Meister Eckhart, becamefor me the key that opens the door to the Way. We must be able to let thingshappen in the psyche. For us, this is an art of which most people knownothing.” [10]

Jung illustrated for us some points in this practice. As he described, consciousnessis forever interfering, helping, correcting, and negating, never leaving thepsychic processes to grow in peace. Jung continues with such words: "Itwould be simple enough, if only simplicity were not the most difficult of allthings. To begin with, the task consists solely in observing objectively how afragment of fantasy develops. Nothing could be simpler, and yet right here thedifficulties begin. Apparently one has no fantasy fragments - or yes, there’s one, but it is toostupid!"

Jung called this the "occasional veritable cramp ofconsciousness." [11]


Based on the Secret of the Golden Flower, Jung explains thetechnique and practice of active imagination. He says: "These exercisesmust be continued until the cramp in the conscious mind is relaxed, in otherwords, until one can let things happen.... In this way a new attitude iscreated, an attitude that accepts the irrational and the incomprehensiblesimply because it is happening."

Jung continues: "Have we, perhaps, an inkling that a mental attitudewhich can direct the glance inward to that extent owes its detachment from theworld to the fact that those men have so completely fulfilled the instinctivedemands of their natures that little or nothing prevents them from perceivingthe invisible essence of the world?" [12]

In 1958, Jung wrote an explanation for the rediscovered manuscript of TranscendentalFunction written in 1916, and in it he says: "This problem isidentical with the universal question: How does one come to terms with theunconscious?" [13]

According to Jung, the universal question we are now confronting today ishow to come to accordance with our unconscious. He says: “This is the questionposed by the philosophy of India, and particularly by Buddhism and Zen.Indirectly, it is the fundamental question, in practice, of all religions andall philosophies. For the unconscious is not this thing or that; it is theUnknown as it immediately affects us.” [14]

Thus we can say, Active Imagination is not only a kind of technique, butalso a kind of attitude, a method to communicate with our unconscious, and away to awaken our process of individuation.

Jung says: "In actual practice, therefore, the suitably trainedanalyst mediates the transcendent function for the patient, i.e., helps him tobring conscious and unconscious together and so arrive at a new attitude."He continues: "Constructive treatment of the unconscious, that is, thequestion of meaning and purpose, paves the way for the patient’s insight intothat process which I call the transcendent function." [15]

In Jung’s comments on the Secret of the Golden Flower, Jung says:"The individual must devote himself to the way with all his energy, for itis only by means of his integrity that he can go further, and his integrityalone can guarantee that his way will not turn out to be an absurdmisadventure."[16]

 Its effect is astonishing in thatit almost always brings about a solution of psychic complications, and therebyfrees the inner personality from emotional and imaginary entanglements,creating thus a unity of being, which is universally felt as a 'release'. HereI’m using my own words to illustrate Jung’s thoughts.

When facing the clinical needs of the patients, their actual needs, Jungsays: "There can be no doubt, either, that the realization of the oppositehidden in the unconscious --- the process of 'reversal' --- signifies reunion with theunconscious laws of our being, and the purpose of this reunion is theattainment of conscious life or, expressed in Chinese terms, the realization ofthe Tao." Jung continues: "If we take the Tao to be the method orconscious way by which to reunite what was separated, we have probably comeclose to the psychological meaning of the concept." [17]

Thus as Jung comments in the Secret of the Golden Flower:"The Hui Ming Ching begins with the words: 'The subtlest secret ofthe Tao is human nature and life.' The practice of human nature and life liesin syncretism." [18] The HuiMing methods involve both ethics and wisdom; the union of Tao (nature) and De(human virtue).

Richard Wilhelm once said to Jung that the Secret of the Golden Flowerwas written by Lu Tzu, but its ideas can be traced to Guan Yingzi, and itsfoundation go all the back to Lao-tzu, the founder of classical Taoism.

Jung’s A Study in the Process of Individuation [Excerpts from TheArchetypes and the Collective Unconscious (1933/50) (CW9.1), pars. 525-626]is one of the most important works of literature on Jung's Active Imagination.And it begins with Lao-tzu’s statement:

Tao’s working of things is vague and obscure.

Obscure! Oh vague!

In it are images.

Vague! Oh obscure!

Profound! Oh dark indeed!

In it is seed.

Its seed is very truth

In it is trustworthiness.

From the earliest Beginning until today

Its name is not lacking

By which to fathom the Beginning of all things.

How do I know it is the Beginning of all things?

Through it! [19]


This knowledge is the "true belief" described in TaiyiJinhua Zongzhi, also refered to as the enlightenment of the heaven’s heart;it is also the state depicted in the I Ching when "there is nothought and no action. It is still and without movement; but, when acted on, itpenetrates forthwith to all phenomena and events under heaven." [20] This isalso the sincere feeling arising from the individuation process evoked byJungian active imagination.

Here, I’d like to share with you a story told by Zhuang-tzu. It is thebeginning part of his work On the Uniformity of All things:

"Nanguo Ziqi sat leaning on his low table. He gazed at the sky andbreathed gently, in a trance as if his soul had left his body. His discipleYancheng Ziyou, who stood in waiting before him, said, “How dose it come tothis? Can your body really become thus like a withered tree and your soul likedead ashes? Your appearance as you lean on your low table today is not the sameas it used to be."

Ziqi said, "Yan, you’ve asked a good question. Do you know why Ilost myself just now? You have heard the music of the man, but you haven’theard the music of the earth. If you have heard the music of the earth, but youhave not heard the music of the heaven!” [21]


This is the picture of "Sitting in meditation (Zuo Chan)" usedby Richard Wilhelm and Jung. The original picture was in Xing Ming Guizhi.

The words about the picture are:

The emperor Yao is peaceful; The king Wen is graceful;

Confucius lives at ease, and Zhuang-tzu stays still.


There is also a poem attached to the picture:

Sitting for a long time, I forget everything;

Suddenly I realize the moonlight shedding on the ground.

The cold wind from the heavens comes along,

All of a sudden it enters into my body.

Looking down at the pool of water,

I find it is pure and transparent.

There are fishes swimming in the pool,

Silently they live harmoniously together.


Zhaung-tzu’s ideas are focused on the inner energy (neidan) described inTaoism, and form the vital foundation of Lu-tzu’s cultivation method. Thepicture of "Sitting in meditation" used by Richard Wilhelm and Jungreflects the situation of Zhuang-tzu’s "Unfamiliarity with myself".This situation of being unfamiliar with oneself is also the perfect conditionfor practicing active imagination. Only when you enter into this situation ofrecognizing your true nature, can you feel the "music of the heavens"and understand the secret of the golden flower, and approach Jung's state ofindividuation.

    If we study Zhuang-tzu’s"Unfamiliarity with myself" from the perspective of Jungian analysis,we can say that "the sound from human beings" is what can be graspedon the conscious level; "the sound from the earth" can be obtainedfrom the subconscious experience of our body and mind; but "the sound fromheaven" can only be accessed through the Self. It needs the understanding ofthe heart and the discovery of our true nature. It also needs the enlightenmentof the heavenly heart! That is the secret in the Secret of the Golden Flower.

Jung once called himself “the worshiper of Zhuang-tzu”, the “follower ofLao-tzu and the Tao.”

In the end of his autobiography, Jung writes:

"When Lao-tzu says: 'All are clear, I alone am clouded,' he isexpressing what I now feel in advancing old age. Lao-tzu is the example of aman with superior insight who has seen and experienced worth and worthlessness,and who at the end of his life desires to return to his own being, into theeternal unknowable meaning……In fact it seems to me as if that alienation whichso long separated me from the world has become transferred into my own innerworld, and has revealed to me an unexpected unfamiliarity with myself." [22] WhatJung quoted is from the 20 chapter of Lao Tzu: “…Vast (is my spitit), as thoughinterminate. All men, indeed, are wreathed in smiles, as though feasting afterthe Great Sacrifice, as though going up to the Spring Carnival. I alone aminfant that has not yet smiled. I droop and drift, as though I belonged nowhere…...Ialone depressed. I seem unsettled as the ocean; blown adrift, never brought toa stop.” [23]


Before ending my lecture, I want to bring you again to the story of therain-maker.

Jung is said to never have given a seminar on active imagination withouttelling this story.

Murray Stein just told you the story of the rain-maker. Here I’d like toretell the story which Jung loved the most. It first appeared in RichardWilhelm’s letter to Jung and was retold by Jung in a seminar. The storyhappened in Wilhelm’s city, Qingdao. There had been a long dry spell and thepeople were facing starvation. In desperation, they fetched the rain-maker, byappearance just an ordinary old man. After he arrived, the old man asked for aquiet little house and a period of three days, without any disturbance fromoutside. On the fourth day the clouds gathered and there was a great snowstorm.On hearing the rain-maker’s story, Richard Wilhelm went to ask the man how hedid it. The old man said: I come from another country where things are inorder. Here they are out of order, they are not as they should be in theordinance of heaven. Therefore the whole country is not in Tao, and I also amnot in the natural order of things because I am in a disordered country. So Ihad to wait three days until I was back in Tao and then naturally the raincame. It was quite simple. The rain-maker put himself in order, and thus puthis surrounding world in order.

In Encounters with the Sul: Active Imagination as Developed by C.G.Jung, Barbara Hanna writes: "Jung once said to me: 'Never give aseminar without telling the people this story.' At one of the very lastChristmases shortly before his death, when he attended the Club dinner, he toldit to us again. Now there was certainly no one in the room who did not know thestory well, yet, after he had told it, the whole atmosphere of the partychanged. I realized, as never before, why he had instruced me to repeat it sooften." Barbara Hanna continues: "If active imagination seems to be away that you can profitably follow, and if you are fairly sure that your truemotive is to know more about yourself and more about the unknown part of man,the first thing to realize is that it follows the principle of the Chinese rain-maker."[24]

Barbara Hanna says: "The greatest use of active imagination is toput us, like the rain-maker, into harmony with the Tao." [25]

So in the story of the rain-maker, it is not only "wu wei (noaction)", but also "wei wu wei (act the path of no action)", andeven “wu wei er wu bu wei (no action but everything gets done) that isillustrated. This is the secret of "preserve the sincerity" in theSecret of the Golden Flower. It is both ethics and wisdom, and also energy. Itinvolves the idea of "complete sincerity in man is like unto god",and the meaning of "pure sincerity can even inspire metal and stone."

At the same time, the story of the rain-maker illustrates not only theidea of "tian ren gan ying (the resonance between heaven and man)",but also the idea of "tian ren heyi (the union of heaven and man)."

 The union of heaven and man is astate of the heart and soul. It is also my basic understanding of what is activeimagination and the processes of individuation.

And these are some of the secrets contained in the Secret of theGolden Flower which can be said out loud.

Thank you for your attention!


(Translated by: Zhang Minand Michael Yen)


[1] (重新排脚注顺序,这里的是英文的第1)Jung and R.Wilhelm. The Secret of the Golden Flower: A Chinese Book of Life. CausewayBooks. New York: 1975, P. 23.

[2] Jung and R. Wilhelm. The Secret of the Golden Flower: A ChineseBook of Life. Causeway Books. New York: 1975, P. 23.

[3] Zhou Delang, Interpretation of the title of Tai Yi Jin Hua Mi Zhi.Religion Studies. 1991, Vol 1. P.13-16.

[4] Jung and R. Wilhelm. The Secret of the Golden Flower: A ChineseBook of Life. Causeway Books. New York: 1975, P. 24-25.

[5] James Legge. Books of Changes. Hunan Publication. Chuangsha 1993. P.9.

[6] James Legge. The Chinese Four Books. Hunan Publication, Chuangsha1992, P. 71.

[7] Jung and R. Wilhelm. The Secret of the Golden Flower: A ChineseBook of Life. Causeway Books. New York: 1975, P. 128.

[8] Jung and R. Wilhelm. The Secret of the Golden Flower: A ChineseBook of Life. Causeway Books. New York: 1975, P. 129.

[9] Jung and R. Wilhelm. The Secret of the Golden Flower: A ChineseBook of Life. Causeway Books. New York: 1975, P. 130-131.

[10] Jung and R. Wilhelm. The Secret of the Golden Flower: A ChineseBook of Life. Causeway Books. New York: 1975, P. 90.

[11] Jung and R. Wilhelm. The Secret of the Golden Flower: A ChineseBook of Life. Causeway Books. New York: 1975, P. 90-91.

[12] Jung and R. Wilhelm. The Secret of the Golden Flower: A ChineseBook of Life. Causeway Books. New York: 1975, P. 80-81.

[13] C.G. Jung. The Transcendent Function (1916). in The Structure andDynamics of the Psyche. CW.8, Bollingen Foundation, New York 1960, PP. 67.

[14] C.G. Jung. The Transcendent Function (1916). in The Structure andDynamics of the Psyche. CW.8, Bollingen Foundation, New York 1960, PP. 67-68.

[15] C.G. Jung. The Transcendent Function (1916). in The Structure andDynamics of the Psyche. CW.8, Bollingen Foundation, New York 1960, PP. 74-75.

[16] Jung and R. Wilhelm. The Secret of the Golden Flower: A ChineseBook of Life. Causeway Books. New York: 1975, P. 93.

[17] Jung and R. Wilhelm. The Secret of the Golden Flower: A ChineseBook of Life. Causeway Books. New York: 1975, P. 95-96..

[18] Jung and R. Wilhelm. The Secret of the Golden Flower: A ChineseBook of Life. Causeway Books. New York: 1975, P. 98-99.

[19] Arther Waley, Lao Zi. Hunan Publication, Chuangsha 1994, P.47.

[20] James Legge. Books of Changes. Hunan Publication. Chuangsha 1993. P.308-309..

[21] Wuang Rongpei ets. Zhuangzhi. Hunan Publication, Chuangsha 1997,P.17.

[22] C.G. Jung. Memories, Dreams, Reflections. Vintage Books Edition1965. P. 359.

[23] Arther Waley, Lao Zi. Hunan Publication, Chuangsha 1994, P.42-45.

[24] Barbara Hannah. Encounters with the Soul: Active Imagination asDeveloped by C.G. Jung. Chiron Publication, Wilmette, Illinois 1981. P. 13-14.

[25] Barbara Hannah. Encounters with the Soul: Active Imagination asDeveloped by C.G. Jung. Chiron Publication, Wilmette, Illinois 1981. P. 13-14.